The Ultimate Guide to Email Marketing

The primary advertising e mail was despatched in 1978, resulted in $13 million in gross sales, and kicked off what has change into probably the most extremely used advertising channels even to today.

Given its early beginnings, e mail isn’t as shiny as some newer channels like messaging and social, however it’s an efficient method to construct an owned viewers that will get outcomes.

Your prospects don’t give their info frivolously, and — if used proper — e mail advertising may be each a relationship-building and profit-building device.

So, how does e mail advertising truly work anyway?

Now let’s overview when it’s best to use e mail advertising and a few advantages and statistics that help the explanation why e mail advertising is so worthwhile.

Grasp the basics of e mail advertising with a free on-line course.

When to Use E-mail Advertising

There are lots of methods to make use of e mail advertising — among the commonest together with utilizing the tactic to:

  • Construct relationships: Construct connections by means of customized engagement.
  • Enhance model consciousness: Hold your organization and your providers top-of-mind for the second when your prospects are prepared to have interaction.
  • Promote your content material: Use e mail to share related weblog content material or helpful property along with your prospects.
  • Generate leads: Entice subscribers to supply their private info in alternate for an asset that they’d discover worthwhile.
  • Market your merchandise: Promote your services and products.
  • Nurture leads: Delight your prospects with content material that may assist them succeed of their targets.

E-mail Advertising Advantages

E-mail Advertising Stats by Business

E-mail advertising guidelines change primarily based in your trade and who you’re advertising to. Under are some e mail advertising traits for B2B, B2C, ecommerce, and actual property firms that may inform your e mail advertising technique.

E-mail Advertising Stats for B2B

E-mail Advertising Stats for B2C

E-mail Advertising Stats for Ecommerce

  • 57.2% of entrepreneurs say the ecommerce manufacturers they handle have 1,000 to 10,000 contacts on their e mail lists.
  • 85.7% of ecommerce entrepreneurs say the first enterprise goal of their e mail technique is rising model consciousness.
  • Roughly 72% of ecommerce entrepreneurs say the most important problem they face with e mail is low open charges.

Getting Began with E-mail Advertising

Earlier than you get overwhelmed with the huge prospects of e mail advertising, let’s break down just a few key steps to get you began constructing a powerful e mail marketing campaign that may delight your prospects.

You possibly can consider these steps as the way in which to create a profitable e mail advertising technique.

Create an E-mail Advertising Technique

You possibly can learn to construct an efficient e mail technique and ship emails that folks truly need to learn. It simply takes a plan (one that may be damaged down into just a few key steps).

Consider the next 5 steps as an overview to your e mail technique. We’ll dive deeper into a few of these in a second.

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1. Outline your viewers.

An efficient e mail is a related e mail. Like every thing else in advertising, begin along with your purchaser persona, perceive what they need, and tailor your e mail marketing campaign to your viewers’s wants.

2. Set up your targets.

Earlier than you give you your marketing campaign targets, collect some context.

You will need to know the typical e mail stats to your trade and use them as benchmarks to your targets.

email benchmarks by industry 2021: open, clickthrough, click-to-open, unsubscribe

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As you’ll be able to see, these benchmarks range enormously by trade. Utilizing this information will aid you create life like targets to your crew.

3. Construct your e mail record.

You want individuals to e mail, proper? An e mail record (we’ll cowl learn how to construct your e mail record within the subsequent part) is a gaggle of customers who’ve given you permission to ship them related content material.

To construct that record, you want a number of methods for prospects to opt-in to obtain your emails.

Don’t be discouraged when you solely have just a few individuals in your record to begin. It will possibly take a while to construct. Within the meantime, deal with each single subscriber and lead like gold, and also you’ll begin to see your e mail record develop organically.

4. Select an e mail marketing campaign kind.

E-mail campaigns range and attempting to determine between them may be overwhelming. Do you ship a weekly e-newsletter? Do you have to ship out new product bulletins? Which weblog posts are price sharing?

These questions plague each marketer. The reply is subjective.

You can begin by studying concerning the sorts of e mail campaigns that exist, then determine which is greatest to your viewers.

You must also arrange totally different lists for several types of emails, so prospects and prospects can join solely the emails which are related to them.

5. Make a schedule.

Determine how typically you propose to contact your record and inform your viewers upfront.

This manner, they will know precisely what to anticipate forward of time. Forgetting to do that can result in excessive unsubscribe lists and might even get you of their spam.

As well as, when you set a schedule, be constant. It’ll construct belief and make sure you keep prime of thoughts to your viewers.

6. Measure your outcomes.

This could come as no shock. As entrepreneurs, we measure every thing. Being meticulous about each key metric will aid you make small modifications to your emails that may yield giant outcomes.

We’re going to the touch on the precise KPIs to watch in a bit (or you’ll be able to soar forward).

Now that you simply perceive the steps to creating an e mail advertising technique, we’ll take a look at what’s concerned in constructing your e mail record.

Tips on how to Construct Your E-mail Record

Now to the enjoyable half: filling your e mail record with keen prospects which are excited to listen to from you.

There are lots of inventive methods to construct your e mail record (and, no, buying emails ain’t one). Tactically talking, record constructing comes down to 2 key parts that work cohesively to develop your subscriber numbers: lead magnets and opt-in types.

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Here is learn how to get began constructing and rising your e mail record.

1. Use lead magnets.

Your lead magnet is precisely because it sounds: one thing that pulls prospects to your e mail record, often within the type of a free provide. The provide can take a variety of codecs, ought to be worthwhile to your prospects, and is given away without cost in alternate for an e mail handle.

There’s only one drawback: Folks have change into hyper-protective of their private info. You possibly can’t anticipate to obtain an e mail handle with out exchanging it for one thing worthwhile.

Take into consideration a lead magnet that’s related, helpful, and makes your prospects’ lives simpler.

Listed below are just a few sorts of lead magnets you may create:

  • E book
  • Whitepaper
  • Infographic
  • Report or Examine
  • Guidelines
  • Template
  • Webinar or Course
  • Software

In case you’re quick on sources, you’ll be able to even repurpose your present content material to create lead magnets.

Tips on how to Create a Nice Lead Magnet

Do not forget that your lead magnet ought to be related to your prospects. Listed below are just a few pointers to make sure you’re making a worthwhile asset to your potential record.

Make your provide solution-oriented and actionable.

Present sensible info that solves an issue and creates a sensible method to obtain the answer.

Be sure that the asset is simple to eat.

Lead magnets ought to be delivered in a digital format. Whether or not it’s a PDF, a webpage, a video, or another format, make it simple to your new result in get hold of and eat it.

Create your provide with future content material in thoughts.

There’s nothing worse than signing up for an incredible provide solely to be upset by the content material that follows. Be sure your provide is aligned with the worth that you’ll present all through your relationship, in any other case you danger damaging belief.

Deal with your lead magnet as a stepping stone to your paid resolution.

The purpose of your e mail record is to finally information subscribers to a paid provide. You provide free content material to exhibit the worth that you simply present as an organization, and people free presents ought to finally result in your services or products.

Create presents which are related to every stage of the customer’s journey.

Each new lead can be at a distinct stage of the customer’s journey, and it’s your duty to know which.

Section your record from the start by offering separate opt-in presents that pertain to every stage of the customer’s journey. You possibly can inform rather a lot a couple of prospect’s mindset by the content material they eat.

2. Create an attractive opt-in kind.

Your opt-in kind is the way you get a prospect’s info so as to add them to your record. It’s the gate between your future leads and the unbelievable asset that you simply created with them in thoughts.

Listed below are some ideas for creating an attractive opt-in kind:

Create a horny design and attention-grabbing header.

Your kind ought to be branded, stand out from the web page, and entice individuals to enroll. You need to excite readers with the provide.

Make the copy related to the provide.

Whereas your objective is to get individuals to enter their info, it isn’t to deceive them. Any info in your kind ought to be a truthful illustration of the provide.

Hold the shape easy.

This might be one in every of your first interactions along with your prospect. Don’t scare them away with an extended kind with a number of fields.

Ask for less than essentially the most important info: first identify and e mail is an efficient place to begin.

Set your opt-in kind for double affirmation.

It might appear counterproductive to ask your subscribers to decide in to your emails twice, however some analysis on open charges means that prospects could choose a confirmed opt-in (COI) e mail greater than a welcome e mail.

Be sure that the movement works.

Take your self by means of the consumer expertise earlier than you go dwell. Double-check that the shape works as supposed, the thanks web page is dwell, and your provide is delivered as promised.

That is one in every of your first impressions of your new lead — make it an expert and constructive one.

Subsequent, let’s take a second to cowl some universally-accepted e mail advertising greatest practices relating to learn how to ship advertising emails.

If all goes effectively, you’ll have constructed a strong record of subscribers and leads which are ready to listen to from you. However you’ll be able to’t begin emailing simply but except you need to find yourself in a spam folder, or worse, a blocked record.

Listed below are just a few extraordinarily essential issues to remember earlier than you begin emailing your record that you simply labored so onerous to construct.

1. Select an e mail advertising service.

An e mail advertising supplier (ESP) is a superb useful resource when you’re in search of any degree of help whereas fine-tuning your e mail advertising efforts.

For instance, HubSpot’s E-mail Advertising device means that you can effectively create, personalize, and optimize advertising emails that look and feel skilled with out designers or IT.

There are a number of options that will help you create one of the best e mail advertising campaigns and help all your e mail advertising targets.

Moreover, you’ll be able to analyze the success of your e mail advertising so you’ll be able to share the info that issues most to your online business along with your crew. The most effective half? You should use HubSpot’s E-mail Advertising service without cost.

Listed below are examples of options providers like HubSpot provide to think about when selecting an e mail service supplier:

  • CRM platform with segmentation capabilities
  • Good standing with Web Service Suppliers
  • A constructive status as an e mail service supplier (ESP)
  • Straightforward-to-build types, touchdown pages, and CTAs
  • Automation
  • Easy methods to adjust to e mail rules
  • Skill to separate take a look at your emails
  • Constructed-in analytics
  • Downloadable experiences

2. Use e mail advertising ideas.

When you most likely don’t assume twice concerning the formatting or topic line of an e mail you ship to a buddy, e mail advertising requires much more consideration. Every thing from the time you ship your e mail to the gadgets on which your e mail might be opened issues.

Your objective with each e mail is to generate extra leads, which makes crafting a advertising e mail a extra concerned course of than different emails you’ve written.

Let’s contact on the elements of a profitable advertising e mail:

Copy: The copy within the physique of your e mail ought to be constant along with your voice and keep on with just one subject.

Pictures: Select pictures which are optimized for all gadgets, eye-catching, and related.

CTA: Your call-to-action ought to result in a related provide and stand out from the remainder of the e-mail.

Timing: Based mostly on a examine that noticed response charges of 20 million emails, Tuesday at 11 AM ET is one of the best day and time to ship your e mail.

Responsiveness: 55% of emails are opened on cellular. Your e mail ought to, subsequently, be optimized for this in addition to all different gadgets.

Personalization: Write each e mail such as you’re sending it to a buddy. Be personable and handle your reader in a well-recognized tone.

Topic Line: Use clear, actionable, attractive language that’s customized and aligned with the physique of the e-mail.

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3. Implement e mail segmentation.

Segmentation is breaking apart your giant e mail record into sub-categories that pertain to your subscribers’ distinctive traits, pursuits, and preferences.

Our subscribers are people, in spite of everything, and we should always do our greatest to deal with them as such. Which means, not sending generic e mail blasts.

We talked about segmentation briefly above. The rationale why this subject is essential sufficient to say twice is that, with out it, you run the danger of sending the fallacious content material to the fallacious individuals and dropping subscribers.

Why do you have to phase your e mail record?

Every one that indicators as much as obtain your emails is at a distinct degree of readiness to transform right into a buyer (which is the final word objective of all this).

In case you ship a reduction coupon to your product to subscribers that don’t even know learn how to diagnose their drawback, you’ll most likely lose them. That’s since you’re skipping the half the place you construct belief and develop the connection.

Each e mail you ship ought to deal with your subscribers like people that you simply need to join with, versus a herd of leads that you simply’re attempting to corral into one-size-fits-all field.

The extra you phase your record, the extra belief you construct along with your leads and the better it’ll be to transform them later.

Tips on how to Section E-mail Lists

Step one in segmentation is creating separate lead magnets and opt-in types for every a part of the customer’s journey. That means, your contacts are routinely divided into separate lists.

Past that, e mail advertising platforms assist you to phase your e mail record by contact information and habits that will help you ship the fitting emails to the fitting individuals.

Listed below are some methods you may break up your record:

  • Geographical location
  • Lifecycle stage
  • Consciousness, consideration, resolution stage
  • Business
  • Earlier engagement along with your model
  • Language
  • Job Title

In actuality, you’ll be able to phase your record any means that you really want. Simply ensure that to be as unique as attainable when sending emails to every subgroup.

4. Personalize your e mail advertising.

Now that you recognize who you’re emailing and what’s essential to them, it is going to be a lot simpler to ship emails with customized touches.

Certain, you’re chatting with 100+ individuals at one time, however your leads don’t have to realize it.

A 2021 report by Litmus revealed that 80% of consumers usually tend to make a purchase order from a model that gives customized experiences.

To essentially drive this level dwelling, think about this: Customized emails have greater open charges. As well as, 83% of consumers are prepared to share their information to create a extra customized expertise.

You’ve gathered all this distinctive information. Your e mail advertising software program permits for personalization tokens. You don’t have any excuse for sending generic emails that don’t make your leads really feel particular.

Listed below are just a few methods to personalize your emails:

  • Add a primary identify discipline in your topic line and/or greeting.
  • Embrace region-specific info when acceptable.
  • Ship content material that’s related to your lead’s lifecycle stage.
  • Solely ship emails that pertain to the final engagement a lead has had along with your model.
  • Write about related and/or private occasions, like region-specific holidays or birthdays.
  • Finish your emails with a private signature from a human (not your organization).
  • Use a related call-to-action to a suggestion that the reader will discover helpful.

5. Incorporate e mail advertising automation.

Automation is placing your record segmentation to make use of.

When you’ve created particular subgroups, you’ll be able to ship automated emails which are extremely focused. There are a few methods to do that.


An autoresponder, often known as a drip marketing campaign, is a sequence of emails that’s despatched out routinely as soon as triggered by a sure motion. As an example, when somebody downloads your e book.

You’ll use the identical pointers for writing your emails that we mentioned beforehand to make sure that your readers discover your emails helpful and attention-grabbing. You need to determine how far aside you’d like your emails to be despatched, say each few days or perhaps weeks and even months.

The wonderful thing about autoresponders is that you would be able to set it and neglect it. Each consumer that’s a part of your autoresponder will obtain every e mail that you simply’ve added to the sequence.


Workflows take autoresponders a step additional. Consider Workflows like a movement tree with sure/no branches that may execute actions primarily based on the standards that you simply set.

Workflows have two key elements:

  • The enrollment standards, or the motion that will qualify a consumer for the workflow.
  • The objective, or the motion that will take a consumer out of the workflow.

Workflow instruments are sensible sufficient to know if a consumer opened an e mail or downloaded a suggestion, and it’ll set off a sequence of actions primarily based on that habits. Which means, it might probably ship an e mail sequence, and even change a prospect’s lifecycle stage primarily based on what a consumer does.

Right here’s an instance of how a workflow might be arrange:

email marketing workflow


The important thing distinction from an autoresponder is that workflows are sensible: They will change the course of your automated sequence primarily based on what your prospect will discover helpful.

As an example, if a brand new subscriber receives a welcome e mail and the next e mail is about as much as ship them a suggestion that they already discovered and downloaded in your web site, the workflow device will know and adapt. In an autoresponder, a consumer receives a particular set of emails at particular time intervals it doesn’t matter what motion they take.

Why is that this essential? Sending the fitting e mail on the fallacious time is detrimental to your backside line.

6. Use e mail advertising templates.

E-mail advertising templates — like these ones from HubSpot — are one other nice useful resource that will help you along with your e mail advertising.

Except you’re a designer and developer on prime of being a talented marketer, templates will prevent a ton of time — they take the design, coding, and UX-definition work out of crafting your emails.

Only one caveat: when making your choice, select e mail templates which are confirmed to be efficient.

The best-quality templates come from essentially the most respected ESPs which have examined them in opposition to hundreds of options. So, keep on with the professionals.

And talking of issues like high quality work and nice status, there are some e mail rules to concentrate on when crafting emails and creating your advertising technique.

E-mail Laws

E-mail rules are per shoppers’ needs to know the way and why their info is getting used. If there’s something we care about, it’s complying with what our prospects—or potential prospects—need.

1. CAN-SPAM Compliance

Technically, CAN-SPAM is an acronym for Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Advertising (as a result of generally the 2 go collectively).

In observe, it’s a method to defend your subscribers’ proper to solely obtain emails that they’ve requested.

The regulation was handed in 2003 and applies to any business emails used for enterprise functions.

Listed below are the methods to make sure that your emails are CAN-SPAM compliant:

  • Embrace your organization identify and handle in each e mail.
  • Place seen unsubscribe hyperlinks inside your emails.
  • Use actual e mail addresses within the “From” and “Reply to” fields.
  • Write topic traces that point out the contents of the e-mail.

Please word: This isn’t to be confused for authorized recommendation. See the FTC’s web site for extra particular authorized info relating to CAN-SPAM legal guidelines.

2. GDPR Compliance

Whereas some could view these newly applied e mail rules as burdensome and pointless, Common Information Safety Regulation (GDPR) truly strikes us nearer to constructing long-lasting and trusting relationships with our prospects.

GDPR is about giving your prospects the fitting to decide on. They select your emails. They select to listen to from you. They select your merchandise. And that’s precisely what inbound advertising is about.

One thing essential to notice about GDPR is that it solely applies to companies that function within the European Union and companies that market to EU residents. Noncompliance will end in vital charges that aren’t well worth the danger, so ensure that to learn the GDPR pointers solely.

Right here’s an outline of how one can adjust to GDPR legal guidelines:

  • Use clear language when requesting consent to retailer private info.
  • Solely acquire contact information that’s obligatory for and related to your online business.
  • Retailer contact information in a safe method and solely use it for the agreed-upon goal.
  • Retain information for justifiable enterprise functions solely.
  • Delete contact information on request.
  • Make it simple for contacts to unsubscribe out of your record or replace their preferences.
  • Comply promptly to a contact’s request for entry to their information.
  • Hold firm data to show GDPR compliance.

These rules can be taken severely (as they need to), so it’s a good suggestion to create a GDPR technique for your online business earlier than you begin sending out emails.


3. Keep away from Spam Filters

You spend time creating the proper e mail and adhering to rules, so the very last thing you need is to finish up in a spam folder.

You will need to keep away from the spam folder as a result of:

  • It hurts your deliverability charges throughout the board.
  • Your contacts will doubtless miss all your emails.
  • You received’t be capable to precisely measure your e mail advertising effectiveness.
  • Your analytics can be skewed.

You possibly can keep away from being deduced to spam by:

Getting whitelisted.

A whitelist is the other of a blacklist, that means it’s a listing of authorized senders which are allowed to succeed in the subscriber’s inbox. The simplest method to accomplish that is to have your new subscriber add your e mail handle to their handle guide. Embrace instructions on how to do that in your welcome e mail.

Minding your copy.

Keep away from utilizing all caps and a number of exclamation factors, in addition to spam set off phrases, like “decide in”, “click on under”, and “order”, which are simply detected and marked down by Web Service Suppliers (ISPs).

Utilizing a dependable e mail service supplier.

Your e mail service supplier’s status impacts your deliverability, so keep on with established, well-known firms.

Implementing a double opt-in.

As soon as somebody opts in to your e mail record, ship an e mail asking them to substantiate. This ensures that your new subscriber is genuinely taken with your emails and can doubtless be extra engaged.

(Try extra methods you’ll be able to keep away from the spam filter.)

And final however actually not least, it’s essential to persistently measure the success of your e mail advertising efforts. There are a variety of choices you’ll be able to select from in the case of your online business’s e mail advertising analytics.

E-mail Advertising Evaluation

By diving into your e mail advertising analytics, you can make higher selections which are certain to positively influence your online business’s backside line, resonate along with your subscribers, readers, and prospects, and justify your work to the remainder of your organization.

Listed below are one of the best methods to investigate the effectiveness of your e mail advertising campaigns.

1. A/B take a look at your advertising emails.

Not all e mail lists are created equal. Some audiences choose personalization and others will assume it’s spammy. Some audiences will like vibrant, eye-catching CTA buttons, and others will choose a extra refined call-to-action.

You’ll by no means know what kind of individuals make up your e mail record till you take a look at the variables. That’s the place A/B testing turns out to be useful.

Surprisingly, not many manufacturers leverage it. A 2021 Litmus examine discovered that 44% of entrepreneurs hardly ever A/B or multivariate take a look at their emails. Solely 19% do it typically or all the time.

A/B testing, or break up testing, is a method to see what kind of e mail performs greatest along with your viewers by analyzing the outcomes of e mail A in opposition to e mail B.

Right here’s the step-by-step course of for A/B testing your emails:

  • Choose one variable to check at a time, e.g., topic line, CTA, pictures.
  • Create two variations of the e-mail: one with and one with out the variable.
  • Enable your emails to be despatched out concurrently for a time period.
  • Analyze your outcomes and preserve solely the model that carried out higher.
  • Take a look at a brand new variable and repeat the method.

Most e mail service suppliers can have A/B testing constructed into their software program, which can make it simple so that you can examine e mail outcomes with out a lot handbook work.

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2. Set e mail advertising KPIs.

There are 4 key metrics to concentrate to when evaluating the effectiveness of your e mail advertising marketing campaign.

  • Deliverability measures the speed at which emails attain your supposed subscribers’ inboxes.
  • Open charge is the share of folks that open your e mail as soon as it reaches their inbox.
  • Clickthrough charge (CTR) is the share of folks that click on in your CTAs.
  • Unsubscribes measures the quantity of people that decide out of your e mail record as soon as they obtain an e mail from you.

3. Modify e mail elements to enhance outcomes.

Many components influence your KPIs, and it’s going to take some experimentation and guesswork to determine which tweaks to your emails will yield the most important modifications.

In case you aren’t getting the numbers you need, strive taking part in with these variables to enhance your e mail outcomes.


  • Be sure that you’re following greatest practices in the case of avoiding spam filters.
  • Take away inactive individuals out of your e mail record to maintain solely engaged subscribers.
  • Examine which emails onerous bounced and take away these e mail addresses out of your record.

Open Charge

  • Play with the language in your topic line to entice individuals to click on in your e mail.
  • Modify the time and day that you simply ship your e mail to see what works greatest.

Clickthrough Charge (CTR)

  • Consider your provide to make sure that it supplies worth to your segmented record.
  • Rewrite your copy to guarantee that it’s clear what you need the reader to do.
  • Attempt totally different CTAs, e.g., graphic versus Inline copy, daring versus refined.


  • First, think about if it is a blessing in disguise, as uninterested events are eradicating themselves out of your record.
  • Consider whether or not the e-mail you despatched is aligned along with your model.
  • Make sure you haven’t carried out a bait-and-switch by promising one factor and delivering one other.
  • Be sure your emails are offering worth to your viewers earlier than attempting to upsell.

4. Use an e mail advertising report template.

Your information does no good when you can’t report it in an organized vogue.

An e mail advertising report is a spreadsheet the place you’ll be able to document your leads to one place that will help you make inferences out of your KPIs and take motion to enhance them.

Right here’s how it’s best to arrange your report:


  • Complete variety of emails despatched
  • Variety of emails delivered
  • Deliverability Charge
  • Bounce Charge
  • Open Charge
  • Clickthrough Charge
  • Unsubscribe Charge


  • Topic line
  • Size of the e-mail physique
  • Provide
  • CTA (inline or graphic)
  • Record phase

Questions To Ask:

  • Was your deliverability charge excessive compared to earlier intervals?
  • How did your CTR examine to your open charge?
  • Had been your unsubscribe numbers per different emails?
  • Did a sure topic line carry out higher than others?
  • Does the size of e mail make a distinction in CTR?
  • May one other type of CTA carry out higher?
  • Was the provide acceptable for the record phase?

Starting E-mail Advertising

Whereas there are numerous guidelines to sending a advertising e mail, an important is that this: Deal with your subscribers like people.

You possibly can obtain all your e mail advertising targets when you preserve this golden rule top-of-mind in each autoresponder, lead magnet, and topic line.

When doubtful or when you’re ever in want of inspiration, flip to among the biggest e mail advertising examples. It’s also possible to check out some fast extra ideas on this video by HubSpot Academy:

And bear in mind, your subscribers need to hear from you they usually need to relate to you. Be a real useful resource, and they’re going to stay up for opening an e mail from you similar to they might any buddy of theirs.

Editor’s word: This submit was initially printed in 2019 and has been up to date for comprehensiveness.

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Initially printed Mar 23, 2022 7:00:00 AM, up to date March 23 2022

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